Archive for July 22nd, 2010

Heroin

Heroin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation).
Heroin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy- 17-methylmorphinan- 3,6-diol diacetate
Identifiers
CAS number 561-27-3
ATC code N02AA09
PubChem CID 5462328
DrugBank DB01452
ChemSpider 4575379
Chemical data
Formula C21H23NO5
Mol. mass 369.41 g/mol
Synonyms Diamorphine, Diacetylmorphine, Acetomorphine, (Dual) Acetylated morphine, Morphine diacetate
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability <35% (oral), 44–61% (inhaled)[1]
Protein binding 0% (morphine metabolite 35%)
Metabolism hepatic
Half-life <10 minutes [1]
Excretion 90% renal as glucuronides, rest biliary
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. Category X
Legal status Prohibited (S9) (AU)Schedule I (CA) ? (UK)Schedule I (US)
Dependence Liability Extremely High
Routes Inhalation, Transmucosal, Intravenous, Oral, Intranasal, Rectal, Intramuscular
Yes (verify)

Heroin, or diacetylmorphine (INN), also known as diamorphine (BAN), is a semi-synthetic opioid drugsynthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine (di(two)-acetylmorphine). The white crystalline form is commonly the hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, though often adulterated thus dulling the sheen and consistency from that to a matte white powder, which heroin freebase typically is.[2] 90% of Heroin is said to be produced in Afghanistan.[3]

As with other opioids, heroin is used as both an analgesic and a recreational drug, and has a high potential for abuse. Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance and physical dependence, which may develop into addiction. Continue reading

Nancy Pelosi – California Marijuana LEGALization

Marijuana legalization

Pelosi supports reform in marijuana laws.[87] She also supports use of medical marijuana.[88]

Military draft

Then Speaker-elect Pelosi and House Minority Whip (now Majority Leader) Steny Hoyer meeting with President George W. Bush on November 9, 2006

In regard to Representative Charles Rangel’s (D-NY) plan to introduce legislation that would reinstate the draft, Pelosi stated that she did not support such legislation.[89]

Minimum wage

As Speaker of the House, she also spearheaded the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 as part of the 100-Hour Plan. The Act raises the minimum wage in the United States and the territories of the Northern Marianas Islands and American Samoa. American Samoa was initially absent from the act, but as part of HR 2206 it was included. One Republican congressman who voted against the initial bill accused Pelosi of unethically benefiting Del Monte Foods (headquartered in her district) by the exclusion of the territory, where Del Monte’s StarKist Tuna brand is a major employer.[90] Pelosi co-sponsored legislation that omitted American Samoa from a raise in the minimum wage as early as 1999, prior to Del Monte’s acquisition of StarKist Tuna in 2002.[91] As of the 2002, 2004, and 2006 election cycles, Del Monte has not contributed to Democratic candidates.[92]

Syria

Pelosi supports the Syria Accountability Act and Iran Freedom and Support Act. In a speech at the AIPAC 2005 annual conference, Pelosi said that “for too long, leaders from both parties haven’t done enough” to put pressure on Russia and China who are providing Iran with technological information on nuclear issues and missiles. “If evidence of participation by other nations in Iran’s nuclear program is discovered, I will insist that the Administration use, rather than ignore, the evidence in determining how the U.S. deals with that nation or nations on other issues.”[93]

Waterboarding and CIA controversy

Pelosi officially opposes the interrogation technique of waterboarding.[94] According to the CIA, while Pelosi was the ranking member of theHouse Intelligence Committee, she was told about enhanced interrogation techniques, including waterboarding authorized for a captured terrorist, Abu Zubaydah.[95][96][97] in one hour-long briefing in 2002. After the briefing, Pelosi said she “was assured by lawyers with the CIA and the Department of Justice that the methods were legal.”[98] Two unnamed former Bush Administration officials say that the briefing was detailed and graphic, and at the time she didn’t raise substantial objections.[99] One unnamed U.S. official present during the early briefings said, “In fairness, the environment was different then because we were closer to September 11 and people were still in a panic. But there was no objecting, no hand-wringing. The attitude was, ‘We don’t care what you do to those guys as long as you get the information you need to protect the American people.’ “

via Nancy Pelosi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Heroin

Heroin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigationsearch
For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation).
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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Heroin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy- 17-methylmorphinan- 3,6-diol diacetate
Identifiers
CAS number 561-27-3
ATC code N02AA09
PubChem CID 5462328
DrugBank DB01452
ChemSpider 4575379
Chemical data
Formula C21H23NO5
Mol. mass 369.41 g/mol
Synonyms Diamorphine, Diacetylmorphine, Acetomorphine, (Dual) Acetylated morphine, Morphine diacetate
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability <35% (oral), 44–61% (inhaled)[1]
Protein binding 0% (morphine metabolite 35%)
Metabolism hepatic
Half-life <10 minutes [1]
Excretion 90% renal as glucuronides, rest biliary
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. Category X
Legal status Prohibited (S9) (AU)Schedule I (CA) ? (UK)Schedule I (US)
Dependence Liability Extremely High
Routes Inhalation, Transmucosal, Intravenous, Oral, Intranasal, Rectal, Intramuscular
Yes(what is this?) (verify)

Heroin, or diacetylmorphine (INN), also known as diamorphine (BAN), is a semi-synthetic opioid drugsynthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine (di(two)-acetylmorphine). The white crystalline form is commonly the hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, though often adulterated thus dulling the sheen and consistency from that to a matte white powder, which heroin freebase typically is.[2] 90% of Heroin is said to be produced in Afghanistan.[3]

As with other opioids, heroin is used as both an analgesic and a recreational drug, and has a high potential for abuse. Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance and physical dependence, which may develop into addiction. Continue reading

Marijuana negative side effects

Withdrawl

Withdrawal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigationsearch
For other uses, see Withdrawal (disambiguation).
Withdrawal
Classification and external resources
ICD10 F10..3-F19..3
ICD9 292.0
eMedicine article/819502
MeSH D013375

Withdrawal can refer to any sort of separation, but is most commonly used to describe the group of symptoms that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications, recreational drugs, and/or alcohol. In order to experience the symptoms of withdrawal, one must have first developed a physical dependence (often referred to as chemical dependency). This happens after consuming one or more of these substances for a certain period of time, which is both dose dependent and varies based upon the drug consumed. For example, prolonged use of an anti-depressant is most likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued than the repeated use of an opioid, such as heroin. In fact, the route of administration, whether intravenous, intramuscular, oral or otherwise, can also play a role in determining the severity of withdrawal symptoms. There are different stages of withdrawal as well. Generally, a person will start to feel worse and worse, hit a plateau, and then the symptoms begin to dissipate. However, withdrawal from certain drugs (benzodiazapines, alcohol) can be fatal and therefore the abrupt discontinuation of any type of drug is not recommended.[citation needed] The term “cold turkey” is used to describe the sudden cessation use of a substance and the ensuing physiologic manifestations. Continue reading

Opium

Opium

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For other meanings of opium, see Opium (disambiguation). For opium-derived and opium-like substances, see Opiates and Opioids.
This article’s introduction may be too long. Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. Read the layout guide and Wikipedia’s lead section guidelines for more information. Discuss this issue on thetalk page(January 2010)
Opium

Opium poppy fruit exuding latex from a cut.

Botanical Opium
Source plant(s) Papaver somniferum
Part(s) of plant sap
Geographic origin Indochina Region
Active ingredients MorphineCodeine
Main producers Afghanistan (primary), PakistanNorthern IndiaThailandLaosMyanmarMexico,ColombiaHungary
Main consumers worldwide (#1: U.S.)
Wholesale price $3,000 per kilogram
Retail price $16,000 per kilogram
v • d • e

Opium (poppy tearslachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from opium poppies (Papaver somniferum). Opium contains up to 12% morphine, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. The latex also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids, such as papaverinethebaine and noscapine. The latex is obtained by lacerating (or “scoring”) the immature seed pods (fruits); the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky brown residue. This is scraped off the fruit. Meconium historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the poppy or different species of poppies. Modern opium production is the culmination of millennia of production, in which the morphine content of the plants, methods of extraction and processing, and methods of consumption have become increasingly potent. Continue reading

Drug Addiction

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Subcategories

This category has only the following subcategory.

D

Drug Rehabilitation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The main article for this category is Drug rehabilitation.

Subcategories

This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.

A

I

P

Pages in category “Drug rehabilitation”

The following 79 pages are in this category, out of 79 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

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1

A

B

C

D

E

G

H

H cont.

I

K

L

M

N

O

P

P cont.

R

S

Addiction

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Addiction

Subcategories

This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total.

A

D

D cont.

S

T

Relapse

relapse (etymologically, “who falls again”) occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. This could be a medical or psychological condition such as depression, an eating disorderschizophreniabipolar disordermultiple sclerosiscancer or an addiction to a drug.

For example, if someone who had problems with alcohol were to give up alcohol and then later start drinking again, this drinking might be considered a relapse. It is different from a slip or lapse in that it implies a return to previous behaviour patterns, as opposed to a one-time occurrence.

It may also, in medicine, mean the end of a remission.

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