Archive for June 6th, 2012 | General Info

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)

  • Last Modified: 12/14/2011

General Information

Cannabis, also known as marijuana, originated in Central Asia but is grown worldwide today. In the United States, it is a controlled substance and is classified as a Schedule I agent (a drug with increased potential for abuse and no known medical use [BIGOTRY]). The Cannabis plant produces a resin containing psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids. (Isn’t THC the ONLY psychoactive compound?) The highest concentration of cannabinoids is found in the female flowers of the plant.[1]Clinical trials conducted on medicinal Cannabis are limited. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the use of Cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition. To conduct clinical drug research in the United States, researchers must file an Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the FDA.

The potential benefits of medicinal Cannabis for people living with cancer include antiemetic effects, appetite stimulation, pain relief, and improved sleep. Although few relevant surveys of practice patterns exist, it appears that physicians caring for cancer patients in the United States who recommend medicinal Cannabispredominantly do so for symptom management.[2]

Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds found in Cannabis species (Cannabis sativa L. andCannabis indica Lam.). This summary will review the role of Cannabis and the cannabinoids in the treatment of people with cancer and disease-related or treatment-related side effects.


  1. Adams IB, Martin BR: Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 91 (11): 1585-614, 1996.  [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Doblin RE, Kleiman MA: Marijuana as antiemetic medicine: a survey of oncologists’ experiences and attitudes. J Clin Oncol 9 (7): 1314-9, 1991.  [PUBMED Abstract] is not trying to free the cancer cure.

Summary of the Evidence for Cannabis and Cannabinoids

To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for people with cancer, the strength of the evidence (i.e., the levels of evidence) associated with each type of treatment is provided whenever possible. To qualify for a level of evidence analysis, a study must:

Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes (i.e., endpoints) measured. The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score. An overall level of evidence score cannot be assigned to cannabinoids because there has been insufficient clinical research to date. For an explanation of possible scores and additional information about levels of evidence analysis of CAM treatments for people with cancer, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.


Several controlled clinical trials have been performed, and meta-analyses of these support a beneficial effect of cannabinoids (dronabinol and nabilone) on chemotherapy -induced nausea and vomiting (N/V) compared with placebo. Both dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced N/V in cancer patients but not for other symptom management or off-label use. 


  • There have been only three small clinical trials on the use of Cannabis in cancer patients. All three studies assessed antiemetic activity but each explored a different patient population and chemotherapy regimen. One study demonstrated no effect, the second study showed a positive effect versus placebo, and the report of the third study did not provide enough information to characterize the overall outcome as positive or neutral. Consequently, there are insufficient data to provide an overall level of evidence assessment for the use of Cannabis for chemotherapy-induced N/V. Apparently, there are no published data on the use ofCannabis for other cancer-related or cancer treatment–related symptoms
  • An increasing number of trials are evaluating the sublingual administration of whole Cannabis plant extractwith fixed concentrations of cannabinoid components. 
  • At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend inhaling Cannabis as a treatment for cancer-related symptoms or cancer treatment–related side effects. | Human Clinical Studies

Human/Clinical Studies

Cannabis Pharmacology
Cancer Risk
Cancer Treatment
Antiemetic Effect
Appetite Stimulation
Anxiety and Sleep
Current Clinical Trials

Cannabis Pharmacology

When Cannabis is ingested by mouth, there is a low (6%–20%) and variable oral bioavailability.[1,2] Peakplasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) occur after 1 to 6 hours and remain elevated with a terminal half-life of 20 to 30 hours. Taken by mouth, delta-9-THC is initially metabolized in the liver to 11-OH-THC, a potent psychoactive metabolite. When inhaled, cannabinoids are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream with a peak concentration in 2 to 10 minutes, declining rapidly for a period of 30 minutes and with less generation of the psychoactive 11-OH metabolite.

Cannabinoids are known to interact with the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme system.[3,4] In one study, 24 cancer patients were treated with intravenous irinotecan (600 mg, n = 12) or docetaxel (180 mg, n = 12), followed 3 weeks later by the same drugs concomitant with medicinal Cannabis taken in the form of an herbal tea for 15 consecutive days, starting 12 days before the second treatment.[4] The administration of Cannabis did not significantly influence exposure to and clearance of irinotecan or docetaxel, although the herbal tea route of administration may not reproduce the effects of inhalation or oral ingestion of fat-soluble cannabinoids.

Cancer Risk

A number of studies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the risks of various cancers associated with Cannabis use.

Continue reading | Health Professional Version


This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use ofCannabis and its components as a treatment for people with cancer -related symptoms caused by the disease itself or its treatment.

This summary contains the following key information:

  • Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. 
  • By federal law, the possession of Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is illegal in the United States. 
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved Cannabis as a treatment for cancer or any other medical condition. 
  • Chemical components of Cannabis, called cannabinoids, activate specific receptors found throughout the body to produce pharmacologic effects, particularly in the central nervous system and the immune system
  • Commercially available cannabinoids, such as dronabinol and nabilone, are approved for the treatment of cancer-related side effects. 
  • Cannabinoids may have benefits in the treatment of cancer-related side effects

Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are hypertext linked (at first use in each section) to the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms, which is oriented toward nonexperts. When a linked term is clicked, a definition will appear in a separate window. All linked terms and their corresponding definitions will appear in a glossary in the printable version of the summary.

Reference citations in some PDQ CAM information summaries may include links to external Web sites that are operated by individuals or organizations for the purpose of marketing or advocating the use of specific treatments or products. These reference citations are included for informational purposes only. Their inclusion should not be viewed as an endorsement of the content of the Web sites, or of any treatment or product, by the PDQ Cancer CAM Editorial Board or the National Cancer Institute. | Patient Version


The story of the Louisiana Convention, from a Ron Paul supporter there

submitted 2 days ago* by Ferginator

This is taken directly from an email from a friend who lives in New Orleans:

So the story starts a few months back. Louisiana just had their 2012 Republican Presidential Primary results in which Rick Santorum took 1st place, Mitt Romney in 2nd place, and Ron Paul in 3rd place. This secured that 10 delegates for Santorum and 5 delegates for Romney will be bound for them at the Republican National Convention in Tampa this August. The media with their lackluster knowledge of politics didn’t mention that Louisiana has 46 delegates that will represent them in the National Convention, not 15. The other 41 state delegates will be chosen by the congressional delegates who will be voted on in the Louisiana Caucus. Not too long after, Louisiana held it’s Caucus for the registered republicans to vote for congressional delegates who will go to the State GOP Convention and vote for the other other 41 state delegates. Louisiana has 6 Congressional Districts. Ron Paul won 4 of the 6 districts, Mitt Romney won 1 district, and both presidential candidates tied and had to split the congressional delegates in half in the 6th district. The media still remains silent through this huge victory for Ron Paul. Ron Paul will have 113 out of the 180 congressional delegates represent him and his (our) platform at the Louisiana GOP Convention. This means that Ron Paul essentially “won” Louisiana. Needless to say the establishment was not too happy about this outcome and they made plans of their own. I’m proud to say that I am one of those 118 elected congressional delegates.

This past weekend was the Louisiana GOP Convention in Shreveport, La, where us delegates had been participating in committees and other activities to change future rules, platforms, and vote for the remaining state delegates. The GOP set up a convention schedule months in advance. The committee meetings were scheduled to be on Saturday morning and the voting of state delegates in the afternoon. Two days prior to the Convention day, the GOP Head Chairman had decided to move the committee convention up to Friday morning so that the inconvenience for delegates of missing work and making lodging accommodations would result in the absence of the elected Ron Paul delegates. Their poor tactic didn’t work and everyone made arrangements to be there. The Chairman decided to hand out a new rule book which would take effect immediately on the night before Saturday’s convention. This was a clear violation of the LAGOP rules that state clearly that new rules would be approved by a majority. The Chairman’s new rules were obviously to favor his authority and power and keep himself immune from a majority rule. This would also give him the authority to choose certain delegates instead of letting the majority (Ron Paul supporters) vote on these certain delegates. A majority of the rules committee obviously denied this arrogant request by the Chairman on Friday.

Saturday morning. The Committee Chairman passes out his new rule book as if nothing happened the day prior. When the congressional district leaders filed for a motion at the convention the Chairman didn’t recognize the motion and purposely ignored all the motions as if the leaders were invisible. The crowd started getting restless from the blatant disrespect. A congressional district leader stands up and makes a motion to the audience to appoint a new GOP Committee Chairman. This is a legal action and is supported by the LAGOP rule book. When the majority voted and supported the favor of a new chairman the new chairman was then implemented. The old chairman lost control of the room and told the cops to arrest the person speaking to the convention who led the new vote. While the peaceful speaker was being arrested, the cops broke 4 of his fingers and I believe used a taser on him. The chairman said that he blacked out for an hour as he returned limping on a cane. (This arrest is caught on the video below.)

The old chairman kept resuming the convention schedule despite the fact that he was legally voted out. All of us 118 delegates (majority of the room) then stood up and turned our chairs 180 degrees to put our backs to the former GOP speaker and his podium and we resumed the convention with a new Chairman and speaker appointed who was facing us from the opposite end of the room. The new chairman had a microphone and amplifier to match the volume of the former speakers mic. The former GOP chairman then had the speaker arrested because he didn’t appreciate his obvious diminished power. The cops tackled the defenseless 60 something year old handicapped speaker and during the process broke his hip. He was taken out in a stroller and later arrested while he was getting X Rays in the ER. We then had a new speaker (a female) who led us through the process of voting on the rest of the 31 delegates who will represent the state of Louisiana in the Republican National Convention while the former GOP Chairman took votes with his minority delegates of who they believe will be the 31 people to represent Louisiana in Tampa.

After the convention the cops proceeded to bully “The Ron Paul People” to leave the convention and not to loiter despite the fact that we paid for the use of the convention center. I have left this experience disgusted with the Republican Party and disgusted with the police who “protect and serve” their community. We still live in a brutal Police state where politicians and cops are above the law and will resort to physical violence against their own peaceful citizens. The establishment has broken its own rules to keep itself from a peaceful revolution that legally played and won at its own game. They’ve hired the police to violently restrain its own citizens and elected chairman/delegates/etc… This is a modern case of a slavery plantation’s tactics to keep its slaves in line. I hope that my good work will one day pave the path for a true Republican candidate that will arise in my lifetime whether that be in Gary Johnson or whomever. For the present, there is no way I can/will ever vote for a republican for president that doesn’t have the name Ron Paul. I have also found a new deep respect for non violent/peaceful protestors such as the civil rights leaders. Every bone in my body wanted to be anything but peaceful despite the police brutality I witnessed. Our president has now passed a bill that arms the FDA. What is this world coming to where we need the FDA to kick down doors with guns to prohibit the sale of unpasteurized milk from local Amish farmers? The republican party is as liberty minded and freedom loving as Joseph Stalin, Adolph Hitler, Mao Tse Tung, and all fascist government organizations that blinds its citizens facade of freedom under the blanket of nationalism.

When i watch the nomination of Mitt Romney all I will think of is the famous quote from Star Wars when Padame says “So this is how liberty will die, with a thunderous applause”

Here is a video of part of what happened today…

Continue reading

A Warning for the Tampa Convention & GA’s!

Submitted by Real_Paulitics on Wed, 06/06/2012 – 05:33  in 

This Is a warning for what may be expected from those who want to paint a bad picture of Ron Paul Supporters: Problem – Reaction – Solution

How can we separate ourselves from those who plan to cause chaos? A bit of planning and a little investment could go a long ways and could shine light on this problem… Your ideas are appreciated! Continue reading

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